Body condition and security
- body must not be so insecure or displaced so that it might lead to loss of control of
the vehicle when driven, or be a danger to other road users
- there must be no dangerous sharp edges or projections caused by corrosion or damage
A vehicle can fail with respect to corrosion for:
- excessive corrosion in a 'prescribed area' and within 30 cms of certain components,
e.g. brakes, steering, suspension, seat belt mountings etc.
- excessive corrosion not in a 'prescribed area', but which is likely to adversely affect
the vehicle's brakes or steering. 'Excessive corrosion' can mean a hole or a significantly
Inside the car
Anti-lock braking system (if fitted) warning lamp is checked for:
- sequence of operation
- Footbrake - reserve travel on the footbrake so that it does not go down to the floor
- pedal rubber not worn to excess
- correct operation of the servo assistance system
This could be a handbrake or a footbrake. Checked for reserve travel so that it doesn't
reach the stops on application. The mountings will be checked for security and/or
Under bonnet checks
- master cylinder and servo unit are checked for fluid leaks with the engine on and the
- servo unit will be checked to ensure it is operating correctly
- visible metal or flexible brake pipes will be checked for corrosion, condition,
breakages or leaks
Under vehicle checks
With the assistant applying load to the footbrake:
- flexible brake pipes and any other metal brake pipes visible beneath the car are
- discs and drums checked for condition and contamination
- brake back plates and caliper securing devices are checked for condition and security
- condition of the brake pads will be checked if visible
- the assistant operates the handbrake and the condition of the linkages and/or cables is
- on some vehicles there will be a brake compensating valve beneath the car which will
need to be inspected for fluid leaks
Brake performance check
The performance of the front and rear brakes are checked for efficiency and balance using
Includes all items affecting the driver's view of the road: the condition of the
windscreen, the wipers and washers.
Chips or cracks in the windscreen directly in front of the driver, in the area swept by
the wiper blades, are acceptable if they are less than 10mm in diameter. In the rest of
the swept area, up to 40mm damage is acceptable.
Official stickers (parking permits, tax disc etc.) in the swept area in front of the
driver will result in a fail if they are more than 10mm in diameter (40mm elsewhere).
Washers and wipers
- extent of area swept by the wipers
- condition of the wiper blades.
Not all mirrors on all vehicles are subject to Test, depending on the age of the vehicle.
Those mirrors which must be checked must be
- visible from the driver's seat
- not distorted or damaged so as to seriously impair the driver's view to the rear.
Under bonnet checks
- upper suspension joints
- any other suspension components which can be inspected from beneath the bonnet
Under vehicle checks
Applies to the front and rear suspension
- no split pins or nuts missing, no components broken or bent
- road springs are checked for condition
- all suspension joints are checked for condition
- shock absorbers must not leak and must be secure (the vehicle will be 'bounced' by the
Tester to check that they damp the springs adequately).
- the suspension is checked for wear by the assistant applying loads in various ways with
the wheels jacked up whilst the Tester observes the result from beneath the vehicle.
Note: There are numerous different suspension systems, and the specific nature of any
examination will depend to a large extent on the design of the suspension system.
Most vehicles after 1965 must have seat belts. Irrespective of that requirement, all seat
belts fitted to any vehicle must be inspected for:
- security of seat belt mountings and locking stalks
- security and operation of the locking/release mechanism
- condition of webbing
- retraction of the belt (it is allowed to manually feed it in).
Notes: 1. For technical reasons the inertia locking mechanism is not checked.
2. On some vehicles the belt is attached to the seat, in which case the security of the
seat to the vehicle would also constitute part of the seat belt check.
The exhaust system will fail the MOT if:
-part of the system missing or excessively deteriorated
-a mounting is missing or damaged so it does not support the system
-there is a major leak
-the system is excessively noisy.
These are checked using specialised equipment, the details of the check depending on the
year that the vehicle was first used on the road. Excessive smoking (checked visually) is
a reason for failure.
Diesel smoke emissions are checked by using a smoke meter.
Any fuel leak will result in a fail. Checked under the bonnet and throughout the run of
the fuel line from the fuel tank to the engine.
- fuel filler cap must fasten securely
- the seal in the cap must not be torn, deteriorated or missing
- no other defect which could cause fuel to leak out.
Tyres and Roadwheels
The reason for failure with respect to tyre wear is:
"The grooves of the tread pattern are not at least 1.6mm throughout a continuous band
comprising: the central three-quarters of the breadth of tread around the entire outer
circumference of the tyre".
Tyres must be correctly matched with regard to:
- where they are on the vehicle with respect to the axles.
- general condition of tyre
- condition of valve.
Tyres fail if they have serious cuts, bulges or other damage.
The wear on the tyre is checked with a tyre tread depth gauge to ensure compliance.
The tyres are examined to ensure that there is no fouling with any part of the vehicle.
Notes: Although under-inflation is not in itself a reason for failure, a brake test may be
inadvisable because of possible damage, and it may affect headlamp alignment. The
condition of the spare tyre is not part of the MOT.
- distorted bead rim
- securely attached to the vehicle
- no wheel nuts or studs missing.
An externally fitted spare wheel or spare wheel carrier must not be so insecure
that it is likely to fall off.
Registration plates and Vehicle Identification Number*
For registered vehicles the plate must be
- not faded, dirty or obscured
- be composed with correctly formed letters and spacing.
The VIN number must be
- permanently displayed
* Required on all vehicles first used on or after 1st August 1980.
Inside the car checks
Steering wheel and steering column:
- steering wheel is in acceptable condition
- steering wheel is securely attached to the steering shaft
- upper bearings of the steering column are inspected for wear
Steering shaft is checked for excessive end float
The clamping bolts are all checked for security
Split pins and locking nuts are also checked.
'Free play' in the steering is checked
All flexible couplings and universal joints are checked.
Under bonnet checks
This varies vehicle to vehicle; some of these items cannot be observed from under the
bonnet on some makes and models.
- security of the steering rack or steering box and its mountings
- play in steering joints
Inspection of any other swivel joints which form part of the vehicles' steering
system which can be readily inspected from under the bonnet.
Under vehicle checks:
All the steering joints are inspected by the Tester whilst the steering is loaded by
turning the steering wheel from side to side.
Power steering systems are checked with the engine running
The security of attachment of the steering rack or steering box is checked both with
respect to the tightness of nuts and bolts, and structural cracking or corrosion of the
vehicle chassis where it is attached
Whilst the vehicle stands on special swivel plates the wheels are turned from lock to lock
and checked to ensure that the wheels and tyres do not foul either the structure of the
vehicle or any brake pipes or hoses
with the wheels jacked the wheel bearings are checked
steering rack gaiters and front outer constant velocity joint boots are examined
metal and/or rubber bushes are checked as are split pins, locking nuts and other locking
or retaining devices which relate to steering components.
On some cars, there will be an element of rear wheel steering which is checked from
beneath the car.
With the vehicle jacked and the assistant applying different loads to the steering and
suspension joints, mainly with respect to the front suspension, but also the rear:
- wheel bearings are checked for excessive wear
- the condition of front drive shafts are checked as are the condition of CV joints if
- control can be easily reached by the driver
- loud enough
- not a sequential multi-tone.
All required lights are checked for:
Side lights and headlamps
- are correct type
- dip and aim.
Stop lights, indicators and hazard lights*
- are correct type
- do not interfere with each other in operation
- driver's tell-tale works with respect to indicators, or there is an audible warning
Rear Fog lamps**
must be fitted to the centre or offside of the vehicle
tell-tale must work
must not be affected by other lamps and not be obscured
must be red.
Number plate lamps
All original lamps must be fitted and working.
There must be two reflectors fitted reasonably symmetrically, securely attached and not
* Must be fitted to all vehicles first used on or after 1st April 1986, but if
fitted, must be tested.
** Must be fitted to all vehicles first used on or after 1st April 1980.
Both front doors must be openable from the inside and outside and all doors must latch
Tailgates, bootlids etc.
All these items, including the tailboards and dropsides of trucks must be securable in the
- the driver's and the front passenger's seats must be secure
- all seat backs must be securable in the upright position.